Distances, angles, directions, locations, elevations, areas, and volumes are thus determined from the data of the surveySurvey data is portrayed graphically by the construction of maps, profiles, cross sections, and diagrams. Land surveying is basically an art and science of mapping and measuring land.

Refers to those control, topographic, and
construction surveys necessary for the location
and construction of highways, railroads, canals,
transmission lines, and pipelines

Made to utilize the principles of aerial photogrammetry, in which measurements made on
photographs are used to determine the positions
of photographed objects.

The traditional method of taking cross sections starts with an alignment
staked out in the field. A profile is run over the centerline stations by
differential leveling. Cross section lines are laid out 90 degrees to the
alignment, often with a right angle prism. Usually elevations are
determined with an engineer’s level and rod in level terrain or with a
hand level and rod in rough, irregular country. For each cross section,
the height of instrument is determined by a backsight on the centerline
station. The rod is then held on the cross section line at breaks in the
surface slope, where rod readings are observed and distances measured
with a tape. Cross sections are usually taken at even stations and points
of interest or irregularity along the alignment.